Aquaculture Adaptive Technology: Outdoor Plastic-Based Pond for African Catfish Production in Small Scale Fish Farmer

Ade Sunarma*, Kesit Tisnawibowo, Abduh Nurhidajat, Sarifin
Main Center for Freshwater Aquaculture Development,
Jl. Selabintana 37 Sukabumi 43114 Indonesia email: juraganindoor@yahoo.co.id

As an introduced species in Indonesia aquaculture, African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) has been cultured widespread along the country. After introduced in 1985-1986, fish farmer replaced local catfish (Clarias batrachus) and began to more seriously effort to use a special hatchery and pond for African catfish. However, since 2000s, along with the increasing of fish farmer skill and culture technique availability, African catfish nursery and grow out mostly used outdoor pond-based plastic. These changes impacted on remarkably increased of African catfish production, from 91mt in 2007 to 337mt in 2011 or 40 pct./yr.

Fish farmer more preferable to culture of African catfish in outdoor pond-based plastic correlated to several comparative advantage, such as:
– Using outdoor plastic-based pond, African catfish could be cultured utilize limited land and water resources. Nursery pond just 12-20 m2/pond (50 cm in water depth) and grow out pond 20-40 m2/pond (70-100 cm in depth). No or limited water replaced along rearing period.
– There were no hatchery building or water treatment needed. So, investment cost were very cheap, i.e. about USD 30-40 and USD 50-70 for nursery pond and grow out pond construction, respectively.
– Easy cultivate technology for fish farmer. African catfish spawned naturally instead artificially and reared in stagnant water instead recirculation system or flow-through.
– Culture period were very short. In nursery stage, fish farmer can sell juvenile fish (8-9 cm in length) after 3 months. In grow out, consumable fish can be reached after 3 months.
– Productivity in nursery and grow out can be reached 37.5 million juvenile/ha/year and 1600 ton/ha/year, respectively.
– African catfish delivered mostly as fresh product and relatively small fish to the market. In Jakarta, the capital city, filled at least 170 ton/day of African catfish 8-10 fish/kg in size as consumable fish.

This success story is the best example of aquaculture development in Indonesia, at least by two reasons, i.e. based on small scale fish farmer instead private company and shorter period from adoption to mass application of fish culture technique than other fish cultured. Then, this successful also showed a different culture system of African catfish compare to available published technique (e.g. de Graaf & Janssen, 1996; Potongkam & Miller, 2006; Fleuren, 2008; Isyagi, et al., 2009).

World Aquaculture 2014 Adelaide, South Australia, 7 – 11 June 2014

Five Populations of African Catfish Based on Different Introduced-History to Indonesia: Purebred and Its Seed Crossbred Performance

Five Populations of African Catfish Based on Different Introduced-History to Indonesia: Purebred and Its Seed Crossbred Performance

Ade Sunarma*, Odang Carman, Komar Sumantadinata, Alimuddin, Putri Zulfania
Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Abstract
In Indonesia, catfish culture grows rapidly after the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) introduced in 1986. After the first selected population and recognized as Sangkuriang population (called as Indonesia, I, population), different African catfish populations were introduced subsequently in 2003 via Thailand by a private company (Thailand, T, population), 2007 from Egypt by West Java Fisheries Division (Egypt, E, population), and 2011 from Kenya (Dutch, D, population and Kenya, K, wild type population) by Main Center for Freshwater Aquaculture Development (MCFAD) Sukabumi, Indonesia.

All populations were tagged and kept separately in outdoor concrete tanks under flow-through water system and fed on commercial diet (45% protein) once a day at 2% biomass per day. Artificial spawning was conducted to obtain 5 purebred groups (e.g. EE group) and 20 crossbred groups (female x male, e.g. IE group) each in triplicates. Larva were reared at density 10 fish/L in aquaria and fed ad-libitum on live tubificid worm for 14 days.

Egg diameter, female and male gonado-somatic index, fecundity, sperm volume, sperm density and sperm motility were not different among populations. The highest FR was 96.04±2.24% (IE group) and the lowest FR was 26.40±1.77% (EK group) and the highest HR was 95.33±4.49% (TD group) and the lowest HR was 55.74±3.83% (TI group). The KE group was highest seed body length (Fig. 1). Positive heterosis was found in 4 out of 20 crossbreds, i.e. IE, EK, ET and KE groups. The Egypt and the Kenya groups were significantly lower than other groups on maternally and paternally fertilization rate, respectively, but no significant difference on hatching rate as well as body length (Table 1).

Availability of different introduced-history of African catfish populations can be utilized, either to obtain the best hybrids or to establish a base population for further selective breeding program. These results indicated there are hybrids grow faster than others. However, further research should be done to obtain a comprehensive performance up to marketable size.

Maternal and Paternal Crossing Effect

Maternal and Paternal Crossing Effect

Seed Body Length at 14 Days Olds

Seed Body Length at 14 Days Olds

World Aquaculture 2014 Adelaide, South Australia, 7 – 11 June 2014

Produksi Mutiara Kerang Air Tawar

Proses pengambilan dan teknik insersi bahan mutiara pada kerang air tawar di Kanchanaburi, Thailand

Demontrasi pada
Kunjungan TCTP 2008
Kerjasama DoF Thailand dengan JICA Jepang

Filmed by Andriamaharo Tantely (Madagaskar)