circle of 12

Name:
ADE SUNARMA

Nickname:
Ade

Country:
INDONESIA

Date of Birth:
July 29, 1973

Office:
In English: Main Center of Freshwater Aquaculture Development, Directorat General of Aquaculture, Ministry Marine Affairs and Fisheries
In own language: Balai Besar Pengembangan Budidaya Air Tawar, Direktorat Jenderal Perikanan, Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan

Office Address:
Jalan Selabintana 37, SUKABUMI 43114 INDONESIA

Mail Address:
Komp. BBPBAT, Jl. Selabintana 37 SUKABUMI 43114 INDONESIA

Mobile phone:
+62 8164638479

Email:
juragan[at]sunarma.net

Name:
MYINT THEINGI SOE

Nickname:
Soe

Country:
MYANMAR

Date of Birth:
September 08, 1977

Office:
In English: Departement of Fisheries, Pathein Freshwater Fishery Station, Ayeyarwaddy division
In own language: Pathein Ngar Lope Ngan Sa Khan Ayeyarwaddy Time

Office Address:
Departement of Fisheries, Pathein Freshwater Fishery Station, Ayeyarwaddy division, Pathein Township

Mail Address:
Htan Kone Lay Street, Pathein Township, Ayeyarwaddy Division.

Phone:
+95 042 24258

Mobile:
+95 09 5203141

Email:
theingisoe01[at]gmail.com

Name:
ROSA BUENO DELOS REYES

Nickname:
Rose

Country:
PHILIPPINES

Date of Birth:
November 28, 1974

Office:
Land and Water Resources Division (LWRD), Institute of Agricultural Engineering (IAE), College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology (CEAT, University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB)

Office Address:
LWRD, IAE, CEAT, UP LOS BANOS, College Laguna, Philippines

Mail Address:
LWRD, IAE, CEAT, UP LOS BANOS, College Laguna, Philippines

Phone:
+6349 536 2387 (office)

Mobile
+6916 744 4602

Email:
rosebueno_dlreyes[at]yahoo.com

Name:
GANGARAM KHAREL

Nickname:
Bhutan

Country:
BHUTAN

Date of Birth:
December 03, 1971

Office:
Dzongkhag Administration, S/jongkhar

Office Address:
Dzongkhag Administration,S/Jongkhar: Eastern Bhutan

Mail Address:
Dzongkhag Administration,S/Jongkhar: Eastern Bhutan

Phone:
+975251205

Mobile:
+9975 17632030, +9975 17765970

Email:
fisherykharel[at]yahoo.com

Name:
ALOK KUMAR SAHA

Nickname:
Alok

Country:
BANGLADESH

Date of Birth:
December 01, 19??

Office:
Department of Fisheries, Bangladesh

Office Address:
Upazilla Fisheries Officer, Kazipur, Sirajganj-6710, Bangladesh

Mail Address:
Bangladesh Paper House, Station Road, Sirajganj-6700, Bangladesh

Phone:
+880752556206

Mobile:
+8801711954738

Email:
aloksaha[at]ymail.com

Name:
DORJI KHANDU

Nickname:
Tiger

Country:
BHUTAN

Date of Birth:
February 26, 1968

Office:
Department of Livestock: Fishery

Office Address:
Dungkhag Administration, S/Choling (RNR-RC)

Mail Address:
Dungkhag Administration, S/Choling (RNR-RC)

Phone:
+9975 243011

Mobile:
+9975 17789597

Email:
khandudorji[at]yahoo.com

Name:
NITIKORN PIWPONG

Nickname:
Pop Korn

Country:
THAILAND

Office:
Suratthani Inland Fisheries Research and Development Center

Office Address:
20 Moo 7 Thakham, Phun Phin District, Suratthani 84130

Mail Address:
20 Moo 7 Thakham, Phun Phin District, Suratthani 84130

Phone:
+66 7727 4580, +66 7728 6919

Mobile:
+66 81 6061846

Email:
piwpong[at]yahoo.com

Name:
UN CHANTY

Nickname:
Chanty

Country:
CAMBODIA

Office:
Fisheries

Office Address:
Otdar MeanChey Fisheries Province, Cambodia

Mail Address:
Otdar MeanChey Fisheries Province, Cambodia

Mobile phone:
+85511715877

Name:
PUNG PUTSEYHA

Nickname:
Seyha

Country:
CAMBODIA

Date of Birth:
August 18, 1982

Office:
Fisheries

Office Address:
Svay Reing Fisheries Province

Mobile:
+85512 585234

Email:
pungkhmer[at]yahoo.com

Name:
BENJAMAS MUSIKAEW

Nickname:
Jim

Country:
THAILAND

Date of Birth:
July 29, 1974

Office:
Nakornrachasrima Inland Fisheries research and Development Centre

Office Address:
PO BOX 60 Jomsurang Aumpor Mueang Nakornrachasrima Province 30000

Mail Address:
PO BOX 60 Jomsurang Aumpor Mueang Nakornrachasrima Province 30000

Phone:
+66 44 254825

Mobile:
+66 81 6303686

Email
mbenjamas[at]yahoo.com

Name:
PHAN THI LE ANH

Nickname:
Anh

Country:
VIET NAM

Date of Birth:
February 03, 1977

Office:
In English: Research Institute for Aquaculture No.3
In own language: Vien Nghien Cuu Nuoi Trong Thuy San 3

Office Address:
D4 Ngo Quyen, Buon Ma Thuot city, DakLak province

Phone:
+84 0500 819028

Mobile:
+84 0988412123

Email:
leanhbmt[at]yahoo.com

Name:
R.M.S. PRIYANTHA

Nickname:
Suga

Country:
SRI LANKA

Office:
In English: National Aquaculture Development Authority (NAQDA)
In own language: Jathika Jalajivi Waga Sanwardena Adikariya

Office Address:
765, Base line road, Colombo 09, SRI LANKA

Mail Address:
Aquaculture Development Centre, Udawalawa, SRI LANKA

Phone:
+94472233298

Mobile:
+94714720234

Email:
priyanthaacnaqda[at]yahoo.com

Name:
K.H.M. GUNARATHNA

Nickname:
Guna

Country:
SRI LANKA

Office:
In English: National Aquaculture Development Authority (NAQDA)
In own language: Jathika Jalajivi Waga Sanwardena Adikariya

Office Address:
National Aquaculture Development Authority, 765, Base line road, Colombo 09, SRI LANKA

Mail Address:
K.H.M. Gunarathna, Aquaculturist, Aralupitiya, Ekiriyankumbura, Bibile, SRI LANKA

Phone:
+94 602553240

Mobile:
+94 715744904

Email:
gunarathnak39[at]yahoo.com

Name:
NGUYEN VIET PHUONG

Nickname:
Phuong

Country:
VIETNAM

Date of Birth:
October 02, 1981

Office:
In English: Department of Fisheries
In own language: Cuc Nuoi trong Thuy san

Office Address:
No.10 Nguyen Cong Hoan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi, VIETNAM

Mobile phone:
+84 01689921081, +84 0922221281, +84 0918021081

Email:
canhbuomxinhdep412[at]gmail.com

Name:
ANDRIAMAHARO NY AINA TANTELY

Nickname:
Tantely

Country:
MADAGASCAR

Office:
Ministere De L’agriculture, De L’elevage Et De La Peche, Direction De La Peche Et Aquaculture

Office Address:
BP 1699 Ampandrianomby Antananarivo 101, MADAGASCAR

Mail Address:
Lot IVI 78 Antanety – Nord Ambohimanarina Antananarivo 101, MADAGASCAR

Mobile:
+261320429185

Email:
tantelyaina02[at]yahoo.fr

Name:
AYUSHSUREN CHANANBAATAR

Nickname:
Ayush

Country:
MONGOLIA

Date of Birth:
December 07, 1981

Office:
In English: Institute of Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences
In own language: Biologiin Hureelen, Mongoliin Shinjleh Uhaanii Akademi

Office Address:
Institute of Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar -51, Jukov-77, Mongolia

Mail Address:
Institute of Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar -51, Jukov-77, Mongolia

Phone:
+974 -99871374

Mobile:
+976 -11-451781

Email:
ayush_ch21[at]yahoo.com

Name:
PURNA DHUNGANA

Nickname:
Purna

Country:
NEPAL

Office:
In English: Directorate of Fisheries Development
In own language: Matshya Bikash Nirdeshanalaya,

Office Address:
Central Fisheries Building, Balaju, Kathmandu, Nepal

Mail Address:
Central Fisheries Building, Balaju, Kathmandu, Nepal

Phone:
+977 014385646

Mobile:
+977 9841632980

Email:
dhunganapurna[at]yahoo.com

Name:
THAN ZAW WIN

Nickname:
Win

Country:
MYANMAR

Office:
Department of Fisheries, Nay Pyi Taw

Office Address:
Department of Fisheries, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar

Phone:
+95 067 408059

Name:
KOONCHAI ANAN

Nickname:
Chai

Country:
THAILAND

Date of Birth:
February 8, 1976

Office:
Sakaew Inland Fisheries Research and Development Center

Office Address:
202 M. 8 T. Nhongtakeanbon, Wattananakorn District, Sakeaw Province.

Mail Address:
PO.Box 12 Mueang District, Sakaew Province. Thailand 27000

Phone:
0-3724-2992

Mobile:
(66) 0819407687

Email:
koonchai_anan[at]hotmail.com, koonchai_anan[at]yahoo.com

report on advanced freshwater aquaculture

Report on Advanced Freshwater Aquaculture Training Course, Thailand, June 01 – July 19, 2008

1. Introduction

2. Objectives

3. Participants

4. Lecture and Practical Work Subjects

5. Result of Training

6. Possibitilites for Training Result Application

7. Award

Acknowledgment

Reference

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disclaimer: chapter of Result of Training based on lecture and practical work. Please refer to original paper for citation.

country report: general freshwater aquaculture in Indonesia

1. INTRODUCTION

Country:
INDONESIA

Organization:
Main Center of Freshwater Aquaculture Development (McFAD). The Center is a freshwater aquaculture development technical implementing unit of the Directorate General of Aquaculture, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Republic of Indonesia. (See: http://www.bbpbat.net).

Location and Facilities of Organization:
The Center is located in Jl. Selabintana 37, Sukabumi regency, Province of West Java, Indonesia, about 112 km toward south east of Jakarta, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia. See location: http://wikimapia.org/ #lat=-906659&lon=106.9347382&z=16&l=0&m=a&v=2
The Center lies on the area of 25.6 hectares that consist of 10 hectares of fish ponds, 12.6 hectares of paddy field and 3 hectares of office buildings, labs, guest house and other supporting facilities. The altitude is 700 m above sea level, with the daily temperature ranging from 20 to 27 °C, rainy day 144 days and rainfall 3.000 – 4.000 mm/year. Water that has been utilizing is supplied from the deep wells and surface water of Panjalu and Cisarua rivers.
The Center has facilities, included: 126 fish ponds, either land based pond or concrete pond; hatcheries for tilapia, carps, labyrinths, catfishes, bullfrog, freshwater lobster and ornamental fishes; fish health, water quality and nutrition laboratories; quarantine; running water system station in Cisaat village; floating net system in Cirata reservoir; giant freshwater prawn hatchery in Palabuhan Ratu area; 3 meeting rooms for 180 audiences and auditorium for 600 audiences; guest house (24 rooms, 84 beds); library; mosque for 150 prayers and sport field (volley ball, foot ball).

Detail of Present Job:
Based on the mentioned Minister’s decree, the duty assigned to McFAD is to carry out the development and application of breeding, culture, fish health management and freshwater aquaculture conservation techniques. Detail of duties, included:
Identification and formulation of freshwater aquaculture development programs;
Assessment on freshwater fish breeding and culture standards;
Assessment on equipments, machines and freshwater fish breeding, and culture techniques;
Implementation of freshwater fish breeding and culture standards application supervision;
Implementation of quality and freshwater fish breeding and culture person certification;
Implementation of production and management of parent stock and grand parent stock;
Observation on freshwater fish breeding, culture and pest-disease control;
Development of the techniques and assessment on the standards of the environment control and freshwater fish resources;
Management on assessment laboratories network and freshwater fish breeding and culture supervision;
Development and management of information system and publication on freshwater aquaculture;
Biodiversity management;
Implementation of administrative and internal affairs.

My responsibilities involve develop and disseminate of applied aquaculture technology and distribute of improved fish broodfish to fisherfolk, especially in several species, i.e.: Indonesian giant goramy (Osphronemus goramy), freshwater eel (Anguilla sp.) and bullfrog.

Expected Responsibilities after the Course:
Aquaculture production could be increased by applying advanced freshwater technology. There’s a few technology achieved by research institution transferred to fisherfolk and limited government officer has a skill to applying the technology. Advanced freshwater aquaculture course will give an opportunity to enhance my capability to applying advanced technology at both my Center and fisherfolk level.

2. AQUACULTURE INFORMATION

General Information:
Indonesia as an archipelago country has 26.000 islands and 81.000 km coastal lines. The extent areas with aquaculture potential at national level is estimated at around 15.59 million hectares, consisting of 2.23 million hectares with potential for freshwater aquaculture, 1.22 million hectares with potential for brackishwater aquaculture and 8.37 million hectares with mariculture potential. Currently, exploitation of this potential has only reached 10.1% for freshwater aquaculture, 40% for brackishwater aquaculture and 0.01% for mariculture.
In addition to the availability of fairly extensive areas, natural conditions in Indonesia greatly favor the development of aquaculture. With a territory longitudinally from Sabang (most west point) to Merauke (most east point), bisected by the equator, Indonesia is blessed with geophysical features beneficial for aquaculture. Water temperature in tropical regions is relatively stable throughout the year so that aquaculture activities can be carried out all year round. The varied inland and coastal landscapes provide opportunities for the development of aquaculture commodities which are also extremely varied. Some location have a climate typified by low rainfall and long periods of full sunlight, high light intensity, usually combined with dry and barren land, which have just the right conditions for the production of fish/aquatic animal seed. Groups of small islands scattered around larger islands serve as a protection from ocean waves, so that they provide safe central locations for the development of aquaculture regions.
During the years 2001 – 2005, the area used for aquaculture increased from 676.186 hectares to 810.189 hectares, consisting of mariculture areas, brackishwater ponds (shrimp pond), freshwater pond, floating net cages and irrigated rice field. This increase was caused by the increasing tendency towards the application of more advanced technology, the increase in areas under cultivation, and support in the form of adequate seed provision in terms of quantity and quality, as well as the availability of financial capital support for fisherfolks.

Aquaculture Practiced:
Varied aquaculture production system has been applied in Indonesia, either traditional, extensive or intensive production. Traditional aquaculture: fish culture is an additional activity beside other job, especially agriculture. There’re not production control and management, sometime annually harvest or as a “saving” (additional income for secondary purpose). No species-specific cultivated, usually mix-commodities in a pond and growing-up stage. Extensive aquaculture: fish culture is an additional activity but production controlled. Selected principles of aquaculture applied in small-scale order. Fish breeding naturally or induced hormonally, seed nursing in a specific pond and growing-up. Most of fisherfolk belong to this system. Intensive aquaculture: fish culture using production management. Fish seed supplied from itself or other hatchery. Growing-up system uses floating net cage, running water system or land-based pond.
Freshwater cultured fish seed mostly supplied from hatcheries and only some species are supplied from the wild. There are about 18 species of freshwater fish that have been successfully breeding in captive area (Table 1).

Species Culture:
The most commonly cultured species are common carp (Cyprinus carpio), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), catfish (Clarias sp. and Pangasianodon hypopthalmus), prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and gouramy (Osphronemus goramy). The other cultured species, i.e.: silver sharkminnow (Osteochillus hasseltii), river catfish (Hemibagrus nemurus), Java barb (Puntius gonionotus), cigar shark (Leptobarbus hoeveni), climbing perch (Anabas testudina), kissing gouramy (Helostoma temmincki), grass carp (Ctenoparingodon idella), freshwater eel (Anguilla sp.), freshwater lobster (Cherax sp.), ornamental fish and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

Table 1. Successfully Breeding of Freshwater Fish in Hatchery in Indonesia.
Species, Breeding System Status: Natural; Induced; Artificial
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) V; V; V
Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) V; -; –
African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus) V; V; V
Walking catfish, (Clarias batrachus) V; V; V
Sutchii catfish, (Pangasianodon hypopthalmus) -; -; V
Indonesian catfish, (Pangasius djambal) -; -; V
Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) V; -; –
Indonesian giant gouramy (Osphronemus goramy) V; -; V
Indonesian silver sharkminnow (Osteochillus hasseltii) V; V; V
River catfish (Hemibagrus nemurus) -; -; V
Java barb (Puntius gonionotus) V; V; V
Cigar shark (Leptobarbus hoeveni) -; -; V
Climbing perch (Anabas testudina) V; -; –
Kissing gouramy (Helostoma temmincki) V; -; –
Grass carp (Ctenoparingodon idella) -; V; –
Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) -; -; V
Freshwater lobster (Cherax sp.) V; -; –
Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) V; V; –
Several ornamental fish V; V; V

Aquaculture Production:
Freshwater aquaculture in Indonesia started with the stocking of common carp and giant goramy in backyard ponds in West Java and subsequently expanded to other parts of Java, Sumatera and Sulawesi island in early twentieth century and to others island in late twentieth century. However, it was only in the late 1970s when a remarkable increase in production from freshwater aquaculture was observed as a result of introduction of new farming technologies, which contributed to the availability of hatchery-produced seed and the development of compound feeds. Figure 1 show an increasing freshwater, brackishwater and mariculture aquaculture production.

Marketing/Trade Performance:
Indonesia has a comparative advantage in terms of geographical location, being relatively close to world markets. At the present time, the four main markets for world fisheries produce are China, Japan, the United States of America and the European Union. Two of these are within Asia-Pasific area close to Indonesia. The main fisheries market destinations in Asia are China and Japan. The development of newly industrialized countries in Asia, such as South Korea, China/Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia provides a great opportunity for Indonesian fisheries produce and opportunity to develop its fisheries-related industries. Figure 2 show development export total of fishery product.

Aquaculture Policy:
Aquaculture development driven to achieve goals, i.e.: 1) to increase foreign exchange earnings, increase income and create job opportunities as well as opportunities for enterprise, 2) to improve the nutritional quality of the diet of the Indonesian people through the consumption of fish, and 3) to protect, restore and conserve aquaculture resources. Within the framework of the revitalization program for aquaculture, the Indonesian government policy, by Directorate General of Aquaculture, is directed towards three programs, i.e.: program to increase aquaculture production for export, to increase aquaculture production for in-country consumption, and to protect and rehabilitate fisheries resources.
The implementation of policy to achieve aquaculture development will be carried out through three approaches, as follow: the development of aquaculture areas or zones, the development of prime commodities, and the development of aqua-business.
Five basic considerations in the development of aquaculture zones are market driven orientation, manageable, fisherfolk participatory, integrated system and infrastructure capacity. Development of aquaculture areas involves development of mariculture, brackishwater and aquaculture zones.
The development of prime commodities is aimed to accelerating the development of aquaculture activities for ten prime commodities, i.e.: shrimp, seaweed, tilapia, catfish (Clarias sp.), catfish (Pangasius sp.), goramy, grouper, milkfish, ornamental fish, and abalone.

Aquaculture Problem:
Development of the freshwater seed sector is very slow compared to marine fish and shrimp hatchery business. This may be market-related as freshwater fish are particularly intended for the local market and only small percentage is aimed for the export market. Other reasons include the decreasing quality of seed, inbreeding issues which caused slow growth and exporter requirement. Another obstacle to the development of the freshwater aquaculture sector is the non/limited-availability of credit for the small-scale farmer.

Problem Solving: A Case in Catfish:
African catfish (Indonesian name: Dumbo catfish, Clarias gariepinus) introduced to Indonesia in 1985 and cultured by fisherfolk in many provinces especially in Java Island. Good performance Dumbo catfish either growth or survival rate compared to local catfish (Clarias batrachus) and have been cultured in the small area increased aquaculture productivity on fisherfolk level. Unfortunately, massive seed production of Dumbo catfish with uncontrolled broodfish management such as inbreeding case was occurred due to decreases of seed quality. Inbreeded-Dumbo catfish can be identified on decreases of growth and survival rate and increase of fluctuating asymmetry. A study on fluctuating asymmetry showed that Inbreeded-Dumbo catfish seeds originated from some production region in Java Island have high asymmetry and abnormality (Nurhidayat, 2000).
Some of strategies have been carried out to improve of Dumbo catfish seed/broodfish quality at Main Center of Freshwater Freshwater Aquaculture Development Center (MCFAD) using backcross strategy. The researches including production of backcross broodfish (year 2000), progeny test of backcross broodfish and its seed (year 2001) and application of backcross broodfish production (year 2002 – 2004). The research result a new variety of catfish called SANGKURIANG catfish. SANGKURIANG catfish has better growth and reproduction characteristics than inbreeded-Dumbo catfish.
SANGKURIANG broodfish has higher fecundity 33.33% and older first gonad maturity than inbreeded-Dumbo. SANGKURIANG seed has higher growth rate 43.57% and 14.61% than inbreeded-Dumbo at 5 – 26 days and 26 – 40 days seed rearing, respectively. SANGKURIANG mature production result higher growth rate 11.36% and 16.44% than inbreeded-Dumbo at 0 – 200 gram/fish and 200 – 700 gram/fish, respectively. On marketable size production, SANGKURIANG reach Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) 0.8 – 1.0.
Amount of 1035 fishes and 1324 fishes of registered broodfish and young broodfish had been distributed by MCFAD in 2004 and 2005 respectively to many local goverments as and The Broodfish Regional and some of them directly distributed to the farmer. The training course to the local government employee and some farmers has been conducted in MCFAD before they accept the fishes.
The farmers in some areas produced the seed of African catfish using protocol from MCFAD, and based of their information, the seed production was increased. The evaluation has conducted also by MCFAD using survey program to monitor the quality of the broodfish. On the other hand, government under responsibility of Directorate General of Aquaculture prepared national budget through bank credit assurance to enforcement capital at small scale fisherfolk.

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