Five Populations of African Catfish Based on Different Introduced-History to Indonesia: Purebred and Its Seed Crossbred Performance
Ade Sunarma*, Odang Carman, Komar Sumantadinata, Alimuddin, Putri Zulfania
Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
In Indonesia, catfish culture grows rapidly after the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) introduced in 1986. After the first selected population and recognized as Sangkuriang population (called as Indonesia, I, population), different African catfish populations were introduced subsequently in 2003 via Thailand by a private company (Thailand, T, population), 2007 from Egypt by West Java Fisheries Division (Egypt, E, population), and 2011 from Kenya (Dutch, D, population and Kenya, K, wild type population) by Main Center for Freshwater Aquaculture Development (MCFAD) Sukabumi, Indonesia.
All populations were tagged and kept separately in outdoor concrete tanks under flow-through water system and fed on commercial diet (45% protein) once a day at 2% biomass per day. Artificial spawning was conducted to obtain 5 purebred groups (e.g. EE group) and 20 crossbred groups (female x male, e.g. IE group) each in triplicates. Larva were reared at density 10 fish/L in aquaria and fed ad-libitum on live tubificid worm for 14 days.
Egg diameter, female and male gonado-somatic index, fecundity, sperm volume, sperm density and sperm motility were not different among populations. The highest FR was 96.04±2.24% (IE group) and the lowest FR was 26.40±1.77% (EK group) and the highest HR was 95.33±4.49% (TD group) and the lowest HR was 55.74±3.83% (TI group). The KE group was highest seed body length (Fig. 1). Positive heterosis was found in 4 out of 20 crossbreds, i.e. IE, EK, ET and KE groups. The Egypt and the Kenya groups were significantly lower than other groups on maternally and paternally fertilization rate, respectively, but no significant difference on hatching rate as well as body length (Table 1).
Availability of different introduced-history of African catfish populations can be utilized, either to obtain the best hybrids or to establish a base population for further selective breeding program. These results indicated there are hybrids grow faster than others. However, further research should be done to obtain a comprehensive performance up to marketable size.