country report: general freshwater aquaculture in Indonesia



Main Center of Freshwater Aquaculture Development (McFAD). The Center is a freshwater aquaculture development technical implementing unit of the Directorate General of Aquaculture, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Republic of Indonesia. (See:

Location and Facilities of Organization:
The Center is located in Jl. Selabintana 37, Sukabumi regency, Province of West Java, Indonesia, about 112 km toward south east of Jakarta, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia. See location: #lat=-906659&lon=106.9347382&z=16&l=0&m=a&v=2
The Center lies on the area of 25.6 hectares that consist of 10 hectares of fish ponds, 12.6 hectares of paddy field and 3 hectares of office buildings, labs, guest house and other supporting facilities. The altitude is 700 m above sea level, with the daily temperature ranging from 20 to 27 °C, rainy day 144 days and rainfall 3.000 – 4.000 mm/year. Water that has been utilizing is supplied from the deep wells and surface water of Panjalu and Cisarua rivers.
The Center has facilities, included: 126 fish ponds, either land based pond or concrete pond; hatcheries for tilapia, carps, labyrinths, catfishes, bullfrog, freshwater lobster and ornamental fishes; fish health, water quality and nutrition laboratories; quarantine; running water system station in Cisaat village; floating net system in Cirata reservoir; giant freshwater prawn hatchery in Palabuhan Ratu area; 3 meeting rooms for 180 audiences and auditorium for 600 audiences; guest house (24 rooms, 84 beds); library; mosque for 150 prayers and sport field (volley ball, foot ball).

Detail of Present Job:
Based on the mentioned Minister’s decree, the duty assigned to McFAD is to carry out the development and application of breeding, culture, fish health management and freshwater aquaculture conservation techniques. Detail of duties, included:
Identification and formulation of freshwater aquaculture development programs;
Assessment on freshwater fish breeding and culture standards;
Assessment on equipments, machines and freshwater fish breeding, and culture techniques;
Implementation of freshwater fish breeding and culture standards application supervision;
Implementation of quality and freshwater fish breeding and culture person certification;
Implementation of production and management of parent stock and grand parent stock;
Observation on freshwater fish breeding, culture and pest-disease control;
Development of the techniques and assessment on the standards of the environment control and freshwater fish resources;
Management on assessment laboratories network and freshwater fish breeding and culture supervision;
Development and management of information system and publication on freshwater aquaculture;
Biodiversity management;
Implementation of administrative and internal affairs.

My responsibilities involve develop and disseminate of applied aquaculture technology and distribute of improved fish broodfish to fisherfolk, especially in several species, i.e.: Indonesian giant goramy (Osphronemus goramy), freshwater eel (Anguilla sp.) and bullfrog.

Expected Responsibilities after the Course:
Aquaculture production could be increased by applying advanced freshwater technology. There’s a few technology achieved by research institution transferred to fisherfolk and limited government officer has a skill to applying the technology. Advanced freshwater aquaculture course will give an opportunity to enhance my capability to applying advanced technology at both my Center and fisherfolk level.


General Information:
Indonesia as an archipelago country has 26.000 islands and 81.000 km coastal lines. The extent areas with aquaculture potential at national level is estimated at around 15.59 million hectares, consisting of 2.23 million hectares with potential for freshwater aquaculture, 1.22 million hectares with potential for brackishwater aquaculture and 8.37 million hectares with mariculture potential. Currently, exploitation of this potential has only reached 10.1% for freshwater aquaculture, 40% for brackishwater aquaculture and 0.01% for mariculture.
In addition to the availability of fairly extensive areas, natural conditions in Indonesia greatly favor the development of aquaculture. With a territory longitudinally from Sabang (most west point) to Merauke (most east point), bisected by the equator, Indonesia is blessed with geophysical features beneficial for aquaculture. Water temperature in tropical regions is relatively stable throughout the year so that aquaculture activities can be carried out all year round. The varied inland and coastal landscapes provide opportunities for the development of aquaculture commodities which are also extremely varied. Some location have a climate typified by low rainfall and long periods of full sunlight, high light intensity, usually combined with dry and barren land, which have just the right conditions for the production of fish/aquatic animal seed. Groups of small islands scattered around larger islands serve as a protection from ocean waves, so that they provide safe central locations for the development of aquaculture regions.
During the years 2001 – 2005, the area used for aquaculture increased from 676.186 hectares to 810.189 hectares, consisting of mariculture areas, brackishwater ponds (shrimp pond), freshwater pond, floating net cages and irrigated rice field. This increase was caused by the increasing tendency towards the application of more advanced technology, the increase in areas under cultivation, and support in the form of adequate seed provision in terms of quantity and quality, as well as the availability of financial capital support for fisherfolks.

Aquaculture Practiced:
Varied aquaculture production system has been applied in Indonesia, either traditional, extensive or intensive production. Traditional aquaculture: fish culture is an additional activity beside other job, especially agriculture. There’re not production control and management, sometime annually harvest or as a “saving” (additional income for secondary purpose). No species-specific cultivated, usually mix-commodities in a pond and growing-up stage. Extensive aquaculture: fish culture is an additional activity but production controlled. Selected principles of aquaculture applied in small-scale order. Fish breeding naturally or induced hormonally, seed nursing in a specific pond and growing-up. Most of fisherfolk belong to this system. Intensive aquaculture: fish culture using production management. Fish seed supplied from itself or other hatchery. Growing-up system uses floating net cage, running water system or land-based pond.
Freshwater cultured fish seed mostly supplied from hatcheries and only some species are supplied from the wild. There are about 18 species of freshwater fish that have been successfully breeding in captive area (Table 1).

Species Culture:
The most commonly cultured species are common carp (Cyprinus carpio), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), catfish (Clarias sp. and Pangasianodon hypopthalmus), prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and gouramy (Osphronemus goramy). The other cultured species, i.e.: silver sharkminnow (Osteochillus hasseltii), river catfish (Hemibagrus nemurus), Java barb (Puntius gonionotus), cigar shark (Leptobarbus hoeveni), climbing perch (Anabas testudina), kissing gouramy (Helostoma temmincki), grass carp (Ctenoparingodon idella), freshwater eel (Anguilla sp.), freshwater lobster (Cherax sp.), ornamental fish and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

Table 1. Successfully Breeding of Freshwater Fish in Hatchery in Indonesia.
Species, Breeding System Status: Natural; Induced; Artificial
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) V; V; V
Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) V; -; –
African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus) V; V; V
Walking catfish, (Clarias batrachus) V; V; V
Sutchii catfish, (Pangasianodon hypopthalmus) -; -; V
Indonesian catfish, (Pangasius djambal) -; -; V
Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) V; -; –
Indonesian giant gouramy (Osphronemus goramy) V; -; V
Indonesian silver sharkminnow (Osteochillus hasseltii) V; V; V
River catfish (Hemibagrus nemurus) -; -; V
Java barb (Puntius gonionotus) V; V; V
Cigar shark (Leptobarbus hoeveni) -; -; V
Climbing perch (Anabas testudina) V; -; –
Kissing gouramy (Helostoma temmincki) V; -; –
Grass carp (Ctenoparingodon idella) -; V; –
Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) -; -; V
Freshwater lobster (Cherax sp.) V; -; –
Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) V; V; –
Several ornamental fish V; V; V

Aquaculture Production:
Freshwater aquaculture in Indonesia started with the stocking of common carp and giant goramy in backyard ponds in West Java and subsequently expanded to other parts of Java, Sumatera and Sulawesi island in early twentieth century and to others island in late twentieth century. However, it was only in the late 1970s when a remarkable increase in production from freshwater aquaculture was observed as a result of introduction of new farming technologies, which contributed to the availability of hatchery-produced seed and the development of compound feeds. Figure 1 show an increasing freshwater, brackishwater and mariculture aquaculture production.

Marketing/Trade Performance:
Indonesia has a comparative advantage in terms of geographical location, being relatively close to world markets. At the present time, the four main markets for world fisheries produce are China, Japan, the United States of America and the European Union. Two of these are within Asia-Pasific area close to Indonesia. The main fisheries market destinations in Asia are China and Japan. The development of newly industrialized countries in Asia, such as South Korea, China/Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia provides a great opportunity for Indonesian fisheries produce and opportunity to develop its fisheries-related industries. Figure 2 show development export total of fishery product.

Aquaculture Policy:
Aquaculture development driven to achieve goals, i.e.: 1) to increase foreign exchange earnings, increase income and create job opportunities as well as opportunities for enterprise, 2) to improve the nutritional quality of the diet of the Indonesian people through the consumption of fish, and 3) to protect, restore and conserve aquaculture resources. Within the framework of the revitalization program for aquaculture, the Indonesian government policy, by Directorate General of Aquaculture, is directed towards three programs, i.e.: program to increase aquaculture production for export, to increase aquaculture production for in-country consumption, and to protect and rehabilitate fisheries resources.
The implementation of policy to achieve aquaculture development will be carried out through three approaches, as follow: the development of aquaculture areas or zones, the development of prime commodities, and the development of aqua-business.
Five basic considerations in the development of aquaculture zones are market driven orientation, manageable, fisherfolk participatory, integrated system and infrastructure capacity. Development of aquaculture areas involves development of mariculture, brackishwater and aquaculture zones.
The development of prime commodities is aimed to accelerating the development of aquaculture activities for ten prime commodities, i.e.: shrimp, seaweed, tilapia, catfish (Clarias sp.), catfish (Pangasius sp.), goramy, grouper, milkfish, ornamental fish, and abalone.

Aquaculture Problem:
Development of the freshwater seed sector is very slow compared to marine fish and shrimp hatchery business. This may be market-related as freshwater fish are particularly intended for the local market and only small percentage is aimed for the export market. Other reasons include the decreasing quality of seed, inbreeding issues which caused slow growth and exporter requirement. Another obstacle to the development of the freshwater aquaculture sector is the non/limited-availability of credit for the small-scale farmer.

Problem Solving: A Case in Catfish:
African catfish (Indonesian name: Dumbo catfish, Clarias gariepinus) introduced to Indonesia in 1985 and cultured by fisherfolk in many provinces especially in Java Island. Good performance Dumbo catfish either growth or survival rate compared to local catfish (Clarias batrachus) and have been cultured in the small area increased aquaculture productivity on fisherfolk level. Unfortunately, massive seed production of Dumbo catfish with uncontrolled broodfish management such as inbreeding case was occurred due to decreases of seed quality. Inbreeded-Dumbo catfish can be identified on decreases of growth and survival rate and increase of fluctuating asymmetry. A study on fluctuating asymmetry showed that Inbreeded-Dumbo catfish seeds originated from some production region in Java Island have high asymmetry and abnormality (Nurhidayat, 2000).
Some of strategies have been carried out to improve of Dumbo catfish seed/broodfish quality at Main Center of Freshwater Freshwater Aquaculture Development Center (MCFAD) using backcross strategy. The researches including production of backcross broodfish (year 2000), progeny test of backcross broodfish and its seed (year 2001) and application of backcross broodfish production (year 2002 – 2004). The research result a new variety of catfish called SANGKURIANG catfish. SANGKURIANG catfish has better growth and reproduction characteristics than inbreeded-Dumbo catfish.
SANGKURIANG broodfish has higher fecundity 33.33% and older first gonad maturity than inbreeded-Dumbo. SANGKURIANG seed has higher growth rate 43.57% and 14.61% than inbreeded-Dumbo at 5 – 26 days and 26 – 40 days seed rearing, respectively. SANGKURIANG mature production result higher growth rate 11.36% and 16.44% than inbreeded-Dumbo at 0 – 200 gram/fish and 200 – 700 gram/fish, respectively. On marketable size production, SANGKURIANG reach Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) 0.8 – 1.0.
Amount of 1035 fishes and 1324 fishes of registered broodfish and young broodfish had been distributed by MCFAD in 2004 and 2005 respectively to many local goverments as and The Broodfish Regional and some of them directly distributed to the farmer. The training course to the local government employee and some farmers has been conducted in MCFAD before they accept the fishes.
The farmers in some areas produced the seed of African catfish using protocol from MCFAD, and based of their information, the seed production was increased. The evaluation has conducted also by MCFAD using survey program to monitor the quality of the broodfish. On the other hand, government under responsibility of Directorate General of Aquaculture prepared national budget through bank credit assurance to enforcement capital at small scale fisherfolk.

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